Write-up 347: Quantum Theory is Physical Not a Social Theory

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Drs. Hasan A. Yahya,  a writer from Michigan, USA

As opposed to social theory, Quantum Theory is a contemporary physical theory that holds that power and some other physical properties typically exist in tiny, discrete amounts. Older theories of classical physics assumed that these properties could vary constantly. Quantum theory and the theory of relativity together kind the theoretical basis of contemporary physics. The 1st contribution to quantum theory was the explanation of blackbody radiation in 1900 by Max Planck, who proposed that the energies of any harmonic oscillator are restricted to particular values, every single of which is an integral multiple of a basic minimum worth. For instance, the power E of this simple quantum is straight proportional to the frequency n of the oscillator as a result E = hn, exactly where Plank’s continuous h is equal to 6.63 x (ten-34) J–sec. in 1905 Albert Einstein , in order to explain the photoelectric effect,  proposed  that radiation itself is also quantized and consists of light quanta or photons, that behave like particles.  In 1913, another scientist named, Niels Bohr used the quantum theory to explain each atomic structure and atomic spectra. The light or other radiation emitted  and absorbed by atoms is identified to have only particular frequencies (or wavelengths), which correspond to the absorption or emission lines seen in atomic spectra. A spectrum nonetheless, is an arrangement or display of light or other forms of electromagnetic radiation separated according to wavelength, frequency, energy, or some other house. In this case, dispersion which is the separation of visible light into a spectrum, might be achieved by implies of PRISM or diffraction grating. Each different wavelength or frequency of visible light corresponds to a different color, so that the spectrum seems as a band of colors ranging from violet at the quick-wave length (high frequency) end of the spectrum by way of indigo, blue, green, yellow, and orange, to read at the long-wavelength (low-frequency) finish of the spectrum. A continuous spectrum containing all colors is created by all incandescent solids and liquids and by gases under higher pressure.

To go back to quantum theory, these frequencies  correspond to definite energies of the photons and result from the fact that the electrons of the atoms can have only particular permitted power values, or levels.  When an electron adjustments from one particular allowed level to another, a quantum of power is emitted or absorbed whose frequency is straight proportional to power difference between  the two power levels E1 and E2, = hv. Quantum mechanics, the application of the quantum theory to the motions and material particles, was developed for the duration of the 1920s. The new observation added in 1924 and 1927, to the theory was made by Louis de Broglie (1924) , who proposed that not only does light exhibit particle-like properties but also particles could exhibit wavelike properties. In 1927, a specifically crucial discovery of the quantum theory  was the uncertainty  principle, enunciated by Warner Heisberg,  that discovery locations an absolute, theoretical limit on the combined accuracy of particular pairs of simultaneous, related measurement.  (530 words) www.askdryahya.com

Supply: The Concise Columbia Encyclopedia, 1983, 1989, pp 681 and 779.

Wikipedia Cost-free Encyclopedia, 

Important words: E = hv , Exactly where E = power of a quantum in joules, h = Planck’s continuous or 6.626 x ten -34 J-sec  and v = frequency in Hertz or sec-1 .