What is cataract and how is it treated?
About what is cataract, why it arises and how it is treated, we deal with the doctor of medical sciences, ophthalmologist, the presenter of the television channel “Doctor” Hristo Perkilovich Takhchidi.
Many people of mature and elderly age in time note that their vision is deteriorating – in about 30-40% of cases it appears to be associated with cataracts, clouding of the lens. The lens quickly becomes turbid due to the disturbance of metabolic processes, metabolism inside the eye. Cataract usually occurs no earlier than 40 years, but in recent years, there is a rejuvenation of the disease. Approximately 60-90% of people over 60 years of age are diagnosed with cataract.
If the cataract is not treated, the vision gradually decreases and can reach a state where the patient can not distinguish between objects, i.e. blindness. In addition, the development of cataracts can lead to complications: the appearance and progression of myopia (due to the swelling of the lens substance); secondary glaucoma; iridocyclitis; destruction of the lens capsule with a dislocation of the turbid core. Now, according to the World Health Organization, there are about 20 million people worldwide who are blinded by cataracts.
The majority of patients make a typical mistake – with a deterioration of vision, the appearance of a vague, fuzzy picture, they do not consult a doctor, but decide to wait and observe. We have such an opinion among patients that cataract should mature.
As a result, it turns out that patients for several years go with uncomfortable vision for them – they find it difficult to carry out their work duties, just do something in their daily life. As soon as a sensation of visual decline appears in the cataract and at the same time it disrupts a normal measured life, it is necessary to decide the question of surgical intervention.
Cataract is treated promptly. The technology of the operation has been worked out to date, the operation is high-tech, very reliable and completely painless procedure. It is carried out through microprojections, lasts about 15 minutes. First you need to remove the clouded lens, and then, after this, install an artificial lens.
Artificial lenses are made from special optical materials, recently – from soft folding polymers (acrylic, silicone). Their main purpose is to replace the natural lens to focus a clear image on the retina of the eye. Each patient individually calculated the strength of the lens, which is necessary for his eyes. Production and delivery of artificial lenses to the clinic is carried out according to their power characteristics, that is, by diopters.
After the operation, patients do not need stitches, being in the hospital, there is no discomfort and unpleasant pain. Postoperative limitations are minimal and they practically do not change the patient’s habitual way of life.
The earlier to do the operation, the easier it goes. The initial clouding of the lens is easier to remove than the full. In the early stages of the operation is faster, the effectiveness is much higher and most importantly, a person does not suffer several years of lack of quality vision.
The most important is the calculation of the artificial lens. When everything is calculated correctly, then literally in an hour or two after the operation the patient starts seeing qualitatively, the vision returns to 100%, even if before the operation it was at the level of 30-40%. After surgery, many patients do not need glasses anymore.
Many patients after the operation say that the vision becomes so bright and clear that they have to get used to all this again, and, meanwhile, this – colorful and voluminous vision – is the norm, it should be so. Patients simply forget that earlier, before the lens became turbid, they saw it.
Patients need to remember something else. As practice shows, the overwhelming majority of people encountering in their lives with a symptom of lowering their eyesight, believes that this is a cataract and as a rule do not rush to appear to an ophthalmologist. They think that they will always manage to show themselves and, accordingly, to undergo surgery, as many of their friends did it and everything is normal.
Unfortunately, such self-diagnosis often ends sadly, the patient comes “with alleged cataract”, and there turns out to be a completely different eye disease. And to help this person because of late treatment is no longer possible. Remember that almost all eye diseases occur with a decrease in vision, and therefore it is better to see the doctor once more than to start a disease!