First aid: what to do with a burn before an ambulance arrives
About how to not be confused in a difficult situation and what to do with a burn before the arrival of an ambulance, says the project leader “First Aid” TV channel “Doctor”, resuscitator Alexei Starkov.
Take the classic for the summer period situation, when a person cooked meat on open fire , decided to speed up the process and splashed fluid for ignition, resulting in a severe burn of the hand. In this case, the degree of tissue damage often depends on how quickly relief is provided.
First of all, you need to assess the depth of the lesion and burn. Superficial burns are red spots on the skin or blisters: whitish, tense. Deep burns are considered if the blisters are marked with bloody contents of red or brown color, if they become sluggish or burst and are baked by crusts.
Surface burns must be cooled. For this purpose, ordinary running water is best. Its temperature should be about 20 ° C, and the cooling time should be about 15 minutes. The burned place needs to be put under water and thus to remove heat from the skin. Deep burns do not cool – immediately close with a clean cloth!
Further the superficial burn should be closed. Ideally for this use a sterile bandage, but it is obvious that in an emergency this is not always achievable. Any pure matter, for example, a T-shirt, will do.
Gently apply the cloth to the burn surface, trying not to cause additional injury. In order that the pure matter does not fall from the burn place, carefully fix it. The dressing should not be oppressive, so as not to provoke the opening of blisters – it is only needed to fix the tissue in place of the burn. In the event that the clothing is stuck to the wound, it is necessary to carefully cut it with scissors around the affected area, without tearing off the adherent fragment from the skin.
With burns, you can not:
1. Prick the blisters: this immediately makes the wound infected.
2. Apply a wet bandage to the wound : for some time it will really relieve the pain, but at the same time increase the risk of infection of the wound. The analgesic effect of this dressing will take less than a minute.
3. Use the following substances:
• vegetable oil – a film that forms fat, interferes with heat transfer. Thermal energy from the surface will pass inside, affecting the deep layers of the skin;
• alcohol – alcohol dehydrates the skin, which will only worsen its condition;
• urine – its anti-inflammatory properties have not been scientifically proven.
The victim should be immediately taken to the doctor if:
- on the body there are deep burns (darkened skin, bursting blisters and crusts);
- Burn blisters cover an area larger than the palm of the victim;
- burns are affected by the shock zone on the body: face, neck, groin, hands and feet.
Such burns should be examined and treated only by specialists.