Naum Gabo (August 5, 1890 – August 23, 1977) was an American ‘Constructivist’ sculptor of Belorussian birth. In 1910, he went to Munich for studying medicine and science associated subjects. Although studying physics and engineering, Gabo read the writings of Henri Bergson and participated in the lectures of art historian Heinrich Wölfflin that combined art and science. These lectures had a considerable impact on Gabo. Naum’s romantic and literary bent was reflected in his early paintings. He began operating utilizing the ‘Stereometric Method’ of building, whilst in Norway, and by way of this, contributed substantially to the development of ‘Constructivism.’ Born as Naum Neemia Pevsner, the artist changed his name to Gabo to distinguish himself from his brother, the artist Antoine Pevsner. One particular of Gabo’s most renowned performs is his 1st masterpiece called the “Constructed Head No. 2” of 1916.
The “Constructed Head No. 2” dates to the period when Gabo 1st started expressing his theories in the kind of art. He started by constructing the representations of heads and torsos, starting with cardboard, then wood, and lastly metal. Gabo’s approach was completely radical with no casting and carving. The structure was open and cellular with intersecting planes rather than a closed strong piece of art. The original creation of “Constructed Head No. two” was created from sheet-iron plates that had been galvanized and painted with yellow ochre paint.
The creation, after being exhibited in Moscow, and then Berlin & Holland, was sent back to the Soviet Union by mistake. Gabo got back the sculpture in pieces in the 1950s. He then reconstructed it. Naum reassembled it following stripping off the paint and later made six replicas from diverse mediums and of different sizes. Gabo produced a plastic version of the “Constructed Head No. 2” in the mid 1920s in Germany and a phosphor-bronze copy was made thirty years later. Each these sculptures had been of the same scale as the original. The original “Constructed Head No. two” was exhibited, along with one of the replicas made of metal, in 1968.
In 1920, Gabo had also designed a sculpture using a motor to spin a steel blade, thereby pioneering a new kind of sculpture known as ‘Kinetic Sculpture.’ In August 1920, Gabo wrote the ‘Realistic Manifesto’ along with Antoine Pevsner and proclaimed the principles of pure ‘Constructivism’ and criticised ‘Futurism’ & ‘Cubism,’ as not becoming full ‘Abstract Arts.’ Gabo indicated that the spiritual experience was the basis of all artistic creations. Operating in Russia in the revolutionary period, Gabo had to execute his creativity utilizing poor-high quality raw components, and several of his creations have been either lost or spoilt throughout that time. The original “Constructed Head No. two” nonetheless, remains as 1 of his most admired and revolutionary masterpieces.