The operation of the CPV is based on solar cells produced of compound semiconductors such as gallium arsenide, using solar radiation with an efficiency of 40%, double the traditional. Nonetheless, as the components needed are extremely pricey, extremely modest cells are installed (two millimeters square and two inches square). To counter this small size, employed numerous implies such as mirrors, lenses, prisms, and so forth.., Which concentrate sunlight on the cells and extended to a thousand occasions.
Concentration photovoltaic technologies (CPV) utilizes the solar radiation with an efficiency of 40%, double that of traditional solar cells
The CPV is a single a lot more example of the numerous sensible applications that have space study. This technologies is used for years in the panels of the satellites and spacecraft, exactly where plates are required to receive maximum solar power in the minimum feasible surface. United States (U.S.) was a pioneer in the creation of these cells, while from the 80’s decline was its drive to focus on the aerospace market.
At present, the increasing development of renewable power is returning the interest in this technologies. Proponents claim that with technological advancement and a suitable legal framework, the CPV can be competitive in a handful of years. For example, CPV Right now, an initiative produced to generalize this scheme, envisaged that the third generation of new cells attain an efficiency of 50% by 2015, therefore helping to reduce its expense by 62%.
When the industry these plates, but can be employed individually as standard photovoltaic systems, with a energy of a few kilowatts (KW), its promoters believe that these days the major economic output is the use on an industrial scale. In this case, the thought would be to develop plants with a lot of solar power and thereby achieve above one hundred megawatts (MW). In this way, we could supply the power to the grid, or use it to produce hydrogen, 1 of the excellent hopes for clean energy.
Besides the U.S., Germany and Spain are the nations most sophisticated in the world in this field. For instance, in 2006 established the Institute of Concentration Photovoltaic Systems (ISFOC). Headquartered in Puertollano (Ciudad Real) is an R & D center in the globe pioneer who has launched, according to its makers, a pilot CPV installation of 3 MW.
For his part, as these responsible for the ISFOC, there are numerous plants that are currently operating in Spain are connected to the network with a total power of 15 MW. These plants are tested in the a variety of technologies offered, with a concentration based on each silicon cells and in cells with higher efficiency. For instance, the Photon Guascor, with monetary help from the Institute for the Diversification and Saving of Power (Thought), place up the very first industrial installation of its type in Europe.
Outside of Spain, but with Spanish participation, the project NACIR is another intriguing initiative in the field of CPV. Its aim is to use this technologies in the nations of North Africa, with unbeatable position to take advantage of sunlight. The project, launched this year, is scheduled to run for four years and has a budget of more than seven million euros, partly financed by the European Commission. Among its primary challenges highlighted in the installation of a method of Morocco SVC connected to the mains, an autonomous system of water pumping and irrigation in Egypt and the creation of a database to increase efficiency and minimize costs.
The project also NACIR emerges via the collaborative efforts of 3 bands: university-industry-institution, as part of the Solar Power Institute of the Polytechnic University of Madrid, the ISFOC, Fraunhoffer Institute for Solar Power in Germany, firms Concentrix Solar (Germany) and Isofoton (Spain), the Moroccan National Electricity (One) and the Ministry of Water Resources of Egypt. Besides NACIR, ISFOC makers explained that they expect to realize over 2009 various collaborative projects in the Middle East, Asia and U.S.
Disadvantages of concentration photovoltaics
The drivers of the CPV right now recognize that this technology is still in a pre-condition. Also, the technologies presents a number of qualities that limit their generalization. For instance, the cells function appropriately only on clear days and with direct radiation, which reduces its use to optimally quite sunny and located on the equator of the planet. For instance, because the ISFOC explained that one of the criteria for choosing Puertollano as a test bed was the higher amount of direct radiation.
Nevertheless, the disadvantage of lack of sunlight prevents the use of solar followers two axes higher precision, but of course tends to make the final product. Furthermore, while there are followers of concentration for its place on roofs, their drivers do not take into account that choice is far more intriguing for this technology. Moreover, the efficiency losses of up to one thousand occasions the sun’s light on the hub are also essential, though lower than other solar technologies, such as the foil.
As costs of CPV, ISFOC accountable for making certain that at present are equivalent to these of conventional photovoltaics, though they estimate that in the short term, technologies development and marketplace growth, coupled with legislation appropriate, will spot the cost of creating electrical energy beneath the CPV traditional photovoltaics.